2 de agosto de 2021

Costs of Hybrid Solar Ships


Operating Costs of Current Ships



Our interest in this cost analysis is to see what impact the cost of fuel and the different consumables of the main propeller engine and auxiliary generator sets have on the total operating cost of the ship. 

In this analysis, we will not take into account the total costs of the shipping company, such as administrative expenses, taxes or its profit, we will only take into account, as we said, the approximate costs of the operation of the ships.


1)  Calculation of the Operating Cost for a 50,000 dwt Panamax-type Bulk Ship.


For this we will make the following considerations:
  • The construction and start up cost of our 50,000 dwt bulk ship with15 knots (27.78 km/h) of displacement speed is of 45 million dollars and with a useful life of 40 years.
  • The main engine of the vessel has a maximum power of 14,560 Kw with an estimated fuel consumption of 2,000 liters per hour of operation.
  • The operating time of the ship will be approximately 75% of the time of its useful life, due to maintenance stops, stops due to loading and unloading of the same or other cases.
  • The approximate cost of the fuel consumed by the vessel is 0,5 u$s/liter.
  • This ship will have 22 crew members with a total staff of 32 people to replace the rest days of the crew.
  • The average and approximate salary of each ship operator will be u$s 3.500 per month considering the gross salary, taxes, bonuses, prizes, viatic, transfers or other costs.
  • The approximate expenditure on supplies and foodstuffs of the personnel in the 40 years of life of the ship will be 6 million dollars.
  • The cost of maintenance in the 40 years of their useful life will be about 45 million dollars.
  • The registration, patent and insurance costs of the ship in the 40 years of useful life will be 60 million dollars.
  • The cost of loading and unloading in ports, moorings, tolls in rivers or navigation channels, port pilots and other associated costs of the ship in the 40-year useful life of the ship will be about 60 million dollars.
  • The fuel cost of the ship's generator sets, the oil and other consumables of the main engine and the various auxiliary combustion engines of the ship will represent approximately 15% of the total cost of the fuel consumed by the main engine of the ship.

With these considerations we will have the following operating costs of the ship in its 40 years of useful life.
  • Ship Cost:  45  Million Dollars.
  • Main engine fuel costs:  262,8  Million Dollars.
  • Cost of fuel and consumables of auxiliary combustion engines:  39,42  Million Dollars.
  • Cost of ship personnel:   53,76   Million Dollars.
  • Cost of edible supplies of ship's personnel:  6  Million Dollars.
  • Cost of Maintenance of the ship:  45  Million Dollars.
  • Cost of registration, patent and insurance of the ship during its 40 years of useful life: 60 Million Dollars.
  • Cost of Port services, Tolls and Moorings:  60  Million Dollars.

Thus, we have that the total operating cost of the ship in its 40 years of useful life: 571,98 Million Dollars.

And the cost of fuel and consumables of all the ship's combustion engines:  302,22  Million Dollars.

And thus, the percentage of the cost of fuel and consumables of combustion engines with respect to the total operating costs of the ship during its useful life is of:   52,84%.



2)  Calculation of the Operating Cost for a 1.860  TEU  Panamax Container Ship.


For this we will make the following considerations:
  • The construction and start up cost of our 1.860  TEU  Panamax Container Ship with 22 knots (40.74 km / h) of displacement speed is of 50 million dollars and with a useful life of 40 years.
  • The main engine of the vessel has a regime power of 25.074 Kw with an estimated fuel consumption of 4.250 liters per hour of operation.
  • The operating time of the ship will be approximately 75% of the time of its useful life, due to maintenance stops, stops due to loading and unloading of the same or other cases.
  • The approximate cost of the fuel consumed by the vessel is 0,5 u$s/liter.
  • This ship will have 27 crew members with a total staff of 38 people to replace the rest days of the crew.
  • The average and approximate salary of each ship operator will be u$s 3.500 per month considering the gross salary, taxes, bonuses, prizes, viatic, transfers or other costs.
  • The approximate expenditure on supplies and foodstuffs of the personnel in the 40 years of life of the ship will be 8 million dollars.
  • The cost of maintenance in the 40 years of their useful life will be about 50 million dollars.
  • The registration, patent and insurance costs of the ship in the 40 years of useful life will be 75 million dollars.
  • The cost of loading and unloading in ports, moorings, tolls in rivers or navigation channels, port pilots and other associated costs of the ship in the 40-year useful life of the ship will be about 75 million dollars.
  • The fuel cost of the ship's generator sets, the oil and other consumables of the main engine and the various auxiliary combustion engines of the ship will represent approximately 15% of the total cost of the fuel consumed by the main engine of the ship.

With these considerations we will have the following operating costs of the ship in its 40 years of useful life.
  • Ship Cost:  50  Million Dollars.
  • Main engine fuel costs:  558,45  Million Dollars.
  • Cost of fuel and consumables of auxiliary combustion engines:  83,77  Million Dollars.
  • Cost of ship personnel:   63,84   Million Dollars.
  • Cost of edible supplies of ship's personnel:  8  Million Dollars.
  • Cost of Maintenance of the ship:  50  Million Dollars.
  • Cost of registration, patent and insurance of the ship during its 40 years of useful life: 75 Million Dollars.
  • Cost of Port services, Tolls and Moorings:  75  Million Dollars.


Thus, we have that the total operating cost of the ship in its 40 years of useful life: 964,06 Million Dollars.

And the cost of fuel and consumables of all the ship's combustion engines:  642,22  Million Dollars.

And thus, the percentage of the cost of fuel and consumables of combustion engines with respect to the total operating costs of the ship during its useful life is of:   66,62%.


With this we can see that the cost of fuel, oil and the different consumables that their combustion engines have have an important impact on the total operating costs of both the Bulk Carrier and the Container Ship, that as the speed of the container ship the greater the fuel consumption is also greater and the greater its impact on the total operating cost of the ship. Therefore, if we manage to reduce the cost of energy used by ships with the use of solar energy, we will also reduce operating costs and the final cost of the freight of the loads transported.




Operating Costs of Hybrid Solar Ships



1) Comparison between the operating costs of a current Bulk Carrier and two types of Hybrid Solar Energy Vessel Configurations 




Case 1:


Operating costs of a Hybrid Bulk Carrier to Solar Energy with both Diesel and Electric Engines


In this analysis we will take into account the savings that will occur in the cost of use between a 50,000 DWT bulk carrier with a standard combustion engine and a solar powered ship with the support structure of telescopic solar panels and monocrystalline silicon solar panels. with an efficiency of 20% working in hybrid form together with a Diesel-Electric propulsion system with a marine combustion engine of 65 to 70% of the power that the ship would have if it were only propelled by a traditional combustion engine to preserve the average displacement speed of the ship of 15 knots either in winter or in summer since the solar panels would provide around 35 to 40% of the ship's propulsion energy but 5% of that energy we will consider that It is energy that the ship consumes for its operation, therefore the solar panels will contribute between 30 and 35% of the energy of the ship's propulsion engines.

In this case, like the large marine combustion engines, the vessel's operating speed will be the same, and as the generation of solar energy in winter and summer can vary, the final operating speed of this hybrid system may vary a little depending on the radiation. that the ship is receiving at all times, these speeds may be different depending on whether we are on a winter day or a summer day, although the average speed of the ship between these two types of days will be 15 Knots (27.78 Km / h ).


For this project we will make the following considerations:

  • The cost of construction and commissioning of our 50,000 TPM bulk carrier with the telescopic structure and the Diesel-Electric motor system will be 60 million dollars and with a useful life of 40 years.
  • The ship's electric motor will have a maximum power of 5,250 Kw.
  • The ship's diesel engine will have a maximum power of 9,464 kW with a fuel consumption of 1,350 liters/hour.
  • The operating time of the ship will be approximately 75% of its useful life, due to maintenance shutdowns, shutdowns due to loading and unloading of the same or other cases.
  • The approximate cost of monocrystalline silicon solar panels with efficiencies of 20% have a cost of 0.3 u$s/Wp and their duration is 20 years.
  • We estimate the approximate cost of Lithium-Ferrophosphate electric batteries to be 50 u$s/Kwh, its duration will be 2,000 to 3,000 cycles with a useful life of 40 years and a weight of 160 Wh/Kg and considering a battery of 150 MWh and a weight of 937.5 Tons.
  • The approximate cost of the Fuel Oil (SFOC) that the ship consumes is 0.5 u$s/liter.
  • This ship will have 22 crew members with a total staff of 32 people to replace the crew members' rest days.
  • The average and approximate salary of each vessel operator will be 3,500 u$s/month considering the gross salary, taxes, bonuses, awards or other costs.
  • The approximate expenditure on supplies and groceries of the personnel in the 40 years of useful life of the ship will be 6 million dollars.
  • The cost of maintenance in the 40 years of its useful life will be about 60 million dollars.
  • The approximate cost of registration, patent and insurance of the ship in the 40 years of useful life will be 60 million dollars.
  • The cost of loading and unloading in ports, moorings, tolls in rivers or navigation channels, port pilots and other associated costs of the ship in the 40-year life of the ship will be about 60 million dollars.


With these considerations we will have the following operating costs of the vessel in its 40 years of useful life.

  • Cost of the Vessel with the telescopic structure: 60 Million Dollars.
  • Costs of solar panels in 40 years of use: 15.36 Million Dollars.
  • Costs of electric batteries in 40 years of use: 7.5 Million Dollars.
  • Diesel engine fuel costs in 40 years of use: 177.39 Million Dollars.
  • Cost of the ship's personnel: 53.76 Million Dollars.
  • Cost of edible supplies for the ship's personnel: 6 Million Dollars.
  • Cost of Maintenance of the ship: 60 Million Dollars.
  • Cost of registration, patent and insurance of the ship during its 40 years of useful life: 60 Million Dollars.
  • Cost of port services, Tolls and Moorings: 60 million dollars.


Total operating cost of the traditional bulk carriers in its 40 years of useful life: 571.98 Million Dollars.

Operating cost of hybrid bulk carrier to solar energy with both diesel and electric engines in its 40-year useful life: 500.01 Million Dollars.

The savings from the use of the hybrid bulk carrier to solar energy with both diesel and electric engines compared to traditional bulk carriers during the 40 years of useful life of the ships is: 71.97 Million Dollars, or 1.8 Million Dollars per year.

Percentage of the cost of the hybrid bulk carrier to solar energy with both diesel and electric engines compared to traditional bulk carriers during their useful life is: 87.52%.

The savings percentage using the hybrid bulk carrier to solar energy with both diesel and electric engines compared to traditional bulk carriers during their useful life is: 12.58%.





Case 2:


Operating costs of a Hybrid Bulk Carrier to Solar Energy with Liquid Fuel Cells


In this analysis we will take into account the savings that will occur in the cost of use between a 50,000 DWT bulk carrier with a standard combustion engine and a solar powered ship with the support structure of telescopic solar panels and monocrystalline silicon solar panels with an efficiency of 20% working in hybrid form together with a propulsion system of electric motors with liquid fuel cells for current fossil fuels such as Diesel or Fuel Oil, and that currently have an efficiency of conversion of fuel energy in electrical energy of 56% with the possibility that this efficiency can be increased in the future to values ​​around 70% and with a 15% generation of residual heat that can be used for other processes such as heating and cooling the ship or other processes inside the boat.

In this case, as the energy generated by the liquid fuel cells of the fossil fuel used, the power generated can be controlled more easily than large marine combustion engines, the vessel's operating speed will be the same in both winter and summer.


For this project we will make the following considerations:

  • The cost of construction and commissioning of our 50,000 TPM bulk carrier with the telescopic structure and the Diesel-Electric motor system will be 60 million dollars and with a useful life of 40 years.
  • The ship's electric motor will have a rated power of 10,960 Kw.
  • The operating time of the ship will be approximately 75% of its useful life, due to maintenance shutdowns, shutdowns due to loading and unloading of the same or other cases.
  • The approximate cost of monocrystalline silicon solar panels with efficiencies of 20% have a cost of 0.3 u$s/Wp and their duration is 20 years.
  • We estimate the approximate cost of Lithium-Ferrophosphate electric batteries to be 50 u$s/Kwh, their duration will be from 2,000 to 3,000 cycles with a useful life of 20 years and a weight of 160 Wh/Kg and considering a battery of only 20 MWh we will have a weight of 125 Tons.
  • The approximate cost of the fuel cells will be 60 u$s/Kw, with a weight of 2 Kw/Kg and an energy efficiency of 56%.
  • The approximate cost of the Fuel Oil (SFOC) that the ship consumes is 0.5 u$s/liter and its lower calorific value is 10,200 Kcal/kg.
  • This ship will have 22 crew members with a total staff of 32 people to replace the crew members' rest days.
  • The average and approximate salary of each vessel operator will be 3,500 u$s/month considering the gross salary, taxes, bonuses, awards or other costs.
  • The approximate expenditure on supplies and groceries of the personnel in the 40 years of useful life of the ship will be 6 million dollars.
  • The cost of maintenance in the 40 years of its useful life will be about 60 million dollars.
  • The approximate cost of registration, patent and insurance of the ship in the 40 years of useful life will be 60 million dollars.
  • The cost of loading and unloading in ports, moorings, tolls in rivers or navigation channels, port pilots and other associated costs of the ship in the 40-year life of the ship will be about 60 million dollars.


With these considerations we will have the following operating costs of the vessel in its 40 years of useful life.

  • Cost of the Vessel with the telescopic structure: 60 Million Dollars.
  • Costs of solar panels in 40 years of use: 15.36 Million Dollars.
  • Costs of electric batteries in 40 years of use: 2 Million Dollars.
  • Cost of Fuel Cells in 40 years of use: 0.66 Million Dollars.
  • Fuel cell fuel costs in 40 years of use: 158.5 Million Dollars.
  • Cost of the ship's personnel: 53.76 Million Dollars.
  • Cost of edible supplies for the ship's personnel: 6 Million Dollars.
  • Cost of Maintenance of the ship: 60 Million Dollars.
  • Cost of registration, patent and insurance of the ship during its 40 years of useful life: 60 Million Dollars.
  • Cost of port services, Tolls and Moorings: 60 million dollars.


Total operating cost of the traditional bulk carriers in its 40 years of useful life: 571.98 Million Dollars.

Operating cost of the hybrid bulk carrier to solar energy with liquid fuel cells in its 40 years of useful life: 476.28 Million Dollars.

The savings in the use of the hybrid bulk carrier to solar energy with liquid fuel cells compared to the traditional bulk carriers in the 40 years of useful life of the ships is: 95.7 Million Dollars, or 2.34 Million Dollars by year.

Percentage of the cost of the hybrid bulk carrier to solar energy with liquid fuel cells compared to traditional bulk carriers during their useful life: 83.27%.

The percentage of savings using the hybrid bulk carrier to solar energy with liquid fuel cells compared to traditional bulk carriers during their useful life is: 16.73%.



2) Comparison between the operating costs of a current Container Ship and two types of Hybrid Solar Energy Vessel Configurations


Case 3:


Operating costs of a Hybrid Container Ship to Solar Energy with both Diesel and Electric Engines 

 

In this analysis, we will take into account the savings that will occur in the cost of use between a container ship of 1,860 TEU and 22 knots (40.74 km/h) of displacement speed with a standard combustion engine and a boat powered by solar energy with the support structure of telescopic solar panels and monocrystalline silicon solar panels with an efficiency of 20% working in hybrid form together with a Diesel-Electric propulsion system with a marine combustion engine of 80 to 85% of the power that the one that the ship would have if it were only propelled by a traditional combustion engine to maintain the ship's average displacement speed of 22 knots either in winter or in summer since the solar panels would provide around 15 to 20% of the energy of the ship's propulsion but 10% of that energy we will consider to be energy that the ship consumes for its operation, therefore the solar panels will contribute between 10 and 15% of the power of the ship's propulsion engines.


For this we will make the following considerations:

  • The cost of construction and commissioning of our 1,860 TEU Panamax-type container ship with the telescopic solar panel carrier structure is 65 million dollars and has a useful life of 40 years.
  • The ship's main engine is electric with a rated power of 23,160 kW and a fuel consumption of 3,925 liters/hour.
  • The operating time of the ship will be approximately 75% of its useful life, due to maintenance shutdowns, shutdowns due to loading and unloading of the same or other cases.
  • The approximate cost of monocrystalline silicon solar panels with efficiencies of 20% and a cost of 0.3 u$s/Wp and their duration will be 20 years.
  • We estimate the approximate cost of Lithium-Ferrophosphate electric batteries to be 50 u$s/Kwh, their duration will be from 2,000 to 3,000 cycles with a useful life of 20 years and a weight of 160 Wh/Kg and considering a battery of only 20 MWh we will have a weight of 125 Tons.
  • The approximate cost of the fuel cells will be 60 u$s/Kw, with a weight of 2 Kw/Kg and an energy efficiency of 56%.
  • The approximate cost of the Fuel Oil (SFOC) that the ship consumes is 0.5 u$s/liter and its lower calorific value is 10,200 Kcal/kg.
  • This ship will have 27 crew members with a total staff of 38 people to make the replacements for the crew members' rest days.
  • The average and approximate salary of each vessel operator will be 3,500 u$s/month considering the gross salary, taxes, bonuses, prizes, per diem, transfers or other costs.
  • The approximate expenditure on supplies and groceries of the personnel in the 40 years of the ship's useful life will be 8 million dollars.
  • The maintenance expense in the 40 years of its useful life will be about 65 million dollars.
  • The approximate cost of registration, patent and insurance of the ship in the 40 years of useful life will be 75 million dollars.
  • The cost of loading and unloading in ports, moorings, tolls in rivers or navigation channels, port pilots and other associated costs of the ship in the 40 years of the ship's useful life will be about 75 million dollars.


With these considerations we will have the following operating costs of the vessel in its 40 years of useful life.

  • Ship Cost: 65 Million Dollars.
  • Costs of solar panels in 40 years of use: 15.36 Million Dollars.
  • Costs of electric batteries in 40 years of use: 10 Million Dollars.
  • Cost of fuel in 40 years of use: 514.33 Million Dollars.
  • Cost of the ship's personnel: 63.84 million dollars.
  • Cost of edible supplies for the ship's personnel: 8 Million Dollars.
  • Cost of Maintenance of the vessel: 65 Million Dollars.
  • Cost of registration, patent and insurance of the vessel: 75 Million Dollars.
  • Cost of port services, Tolls and Moorings: 75 Million Dollars.


Total operating cost of the traditional container ship in its 40 years of useful life: 964.06 Million Dollars.

Operating cost of the hybrid container ship to solar energy with both diesel and electric engines in its 40-year useful life: 891.53 Million Dollars.

The savings from the use of the hybrid container ship to solar energy with both diesel and electric engines compared to the traditional container ship in the 40-year useful life of the ships is: 72.53 Million Dollars, or 1.81 Million Dollars per year .

Percentage of the cost of the hybrid container ship to solar energy with both diesel and electric engines compared to the traditional container ship during their useful life: 92.48%.

The percentage of savings using the hybrid container ship to solar energy with both diesel and electric engines compared to the traditional container ship during their useful life is: 7.52%.



Case 4:


Operating costs of a Hybrid Container Ship to Solar Energy with Liquid Fuel Cells


In this analysis we will take into account the savings that will occur in the cost of use between a container ship of 1,860 TEU and 22 knots (40.74 km/h) of displacement speed with a standard combustion engine and a boat powered by solar energy. with the support structure of telescopic solar panels and monocrystalline silicon solar panels with an efficiency of 20% working in hybrid form together with a propulsion system of electric motors with liquid fuel cells for current fossil fuels such as Diesel or Fuel Oil, and which currently have an efficiency of conversion of fuel energy into electrical energy of 56% with the possibility that this efficiency may be increased in the future to values ​​around 70% and with a 15% generation of residual heat that It can be used for other processes such as heating and cooling the ship or other processes within the ship.

In this case, as the energy generated by the liquid fuel cells of the fossil fuel used, the power generated can be controlled more easily than large marine combustion engines, the vessel's operating speed will be the same in both winter and summer.


For this project we will make the following considerations:

  • The cost of construction and commissioning of our 1,860 TEU Panamax-type container ship with the telescopic solar panel carrier structure is 65 million dollars and has a useful life of 40 years.
  • The main engine of the ship is electric with a rated power of 25,074 Kw.
  • The operating time of the ship will be approximately 75% of its useful life, due to maintenance shutdowns, shutdowns due to loading and unloading of the same or other cases.
  • The approximate cost of monocrystalline silicon solar panels with efficiencies of 20% and a cost of 0.3 u$s/Wp and their duration will be 20 years.
  • We estimate the approximate cost of Lithium-Ferrophosphate electric batteries to be 50 u$s/Kwh, their duration will be from 2,000 to 3,000 cycles with a useful life of 20 years and a weight of 160 Wh/Kg and considering a battery of only 10 MWh we will have a weight of 62.5 Tons.
  • The approximate cost of the fuel cells will be 60 u$s/Kw, with a weight of 2 Kw/Kg and an energy efficiency of 56%.
  • The approximate cost of the Fuel Oil (SFOC) that the ship consumes is 0.5 u$s/liter and its lower calorific value is 10,200 Kcal/kg.
  • This ship will have 27 crew members with a total staff of 38 people to make the replacements for the crew members' rest days.
  • The average and approximate salary of each vessel operator will be 3,500 u$s/month considering the gross salary, taxes, bonuses, prizes or other costs.
  • The approximate expenditure on supplies and groceries of the personnel in the 40 years of the ship's useful life will be 8 million dollars.
  • The maintenance expense in the 40 years of its useful life will be about 65 million dollars.
  • The approximate cost of registration, patent and insurance of the ship in the 40 years of useful life will be 75 million dollars.
  • The cost of loading and unloading in ports, moorings, tolls in rivers or navigation channels, port pilots and other associated costs of the ship in the 40 years of the ship's useful life will be about 75 million dollars.


With these considerations we will have the following operating costs of the vessel in its 40 years of useful life.

  • Cost of the Vessel with the telescopic structure: 65 Million Dollars.
  • Costs of solar panels in 40 years of use: 15.36 Million Dollars.
  • Costs of electric batteries in 40 years of use: 1 Million Dollars.
  • Cost of Fuel Cells in 40 years of use: 1.5 Million Dollars.
  • Fuel cell fuel costs in 40 years of use: 426.8 Million Dollars.
  • Cost of the ship's personnel: 63.84 Million Dollars.
  • Cost of edible supplies for the ship's personnel: 8 Million Dollars.
  • Cost of maintenance of the vessel: 65 Million Dollars.
  • Cost of registration, patent and insurance of the ship during its 40 years of useful life: 75 Million Dollars.
  • Cost of port services, tolls and moorings: 75 million dollars.


Total operating cost of the traditional container ship in its 40 years of useful life: 964.06 Million Dollars.

Operating cost of the hybrid container ship to solar energy with electric motor and liquid fuel cells in its 40 years of useful life: 796.5 Million Dollars.

The savings in the use of the hybrid container ship to solar energy with liquid fuel cells and compared to the traditional container ship in the 40 years of useful life of the ships is: 167.56 Million Dollars, or 4.19 Million Dollars per year.

Percentage of the cost of the hybrid container ship to solar energy with liquid fuel cells with respect to the traditional container ship during its useful life: 82.627%.

The percentage of savings using the hybrid container ship with to solar energy with liquid fuel cells respect to the traditional container ship during its useful life is: 17.38%.



Conclusions 


1)  Bulk Carrier:


These calculated values ​​indicate that at present the costs of a hybrid bulk carrier to solar energy with both diesel and electric engines is already almost 12.6% lower than the costs of current bulk carriers and with the same displacement speed. average between winter and summer of 15 knots (27.78 km/h) than the combustion bulk carrier considered in the calculations and in case 2 thehybrid bulk carrier to solar energy with liquid fuel cells for Fuel Oil the costs would already be 16.73% lower than the costs of current bulk carriers.


2)  Container Ship:


These calculated values ​​indicate that currently the costs of a hybrid container ship to solar energy with both diesel and electric engines is already almost 7.52% lower than the costs of current container ships and with the same speed of travel average between winter and summer of 22 knots (40.74 km/h) than the combustion container ship considered in the calculations and in case 2 the hybrid container ship with to solar energy with liquid fuel cells for Fuel Oil the costs would already be 17.38% lower than the costs of current container ships, mainly due to the greater efficiency of liquid fuel cells, which are of the order of 56% with respect to the thermal efficiency of the diesel combustion engines used by current ships that have efficiencies of the order of 28 to 30%, therefore, it is that this percentage of savings has increased from what s operating costs of container ships compared to bulk carriers that have a lower total fuel consumption.

If we consider the use of Perovstika solar panels that in a future no longer than 5 years can reach the mass market with an efficiency of around 30 to 35% and considering that the costs of solar panels and electric batteries would continue to decrease by the next few years the cost savings in the hybrid ship would increase even more significantly, where in addition, in the future of about 20 to 30 years with the increase in efficiency of the solar panels, and the cheaper solar panels and batteries electricity, the cost reduction of this type of hybrid vessel can be even more significantly higher.

Therefore, I consider that this type of telescopic solar panel holder structure should already begin to be used in large cargo ships that are being built from now on due to the significant cost saving values ​​that they would already begin to produce in the use of this type of solar boats.